Fears of destroying earthquakes and tsunamis are giving way to regards over atomic assault following multiple missile experiments conducted by Pyongyang
A brief research trip to Japans north-east coast to witness the aftermath of the March 2011 tsunami was all that it took to persuade Yoshihiko Kurotori to build a shelter in his back garden.
His home in suburban Wakayama is just a kilometre from the stretch of Pacific coast that scientists say is likely to be struck by a powerful earthquake and tsunami in the coming decades, causing an estimated 320,000 deaths.
I envisioned the foundations of what had once been people homes and envisaged there and then that I needed to protect myself, Kurotori articulated. My neighbours asked me what on earth I was doing when the diggers arrived. They supposed I was squandering my fund, but you cant set world prices on safety.
He opened the shelters heavy sword entrance to expose a tiny chamber encased by steel-reinforced concrete walls of up to 35 inches thick. The centrepiece is a Swiss-made 1.8 m yen( 12,200) ventilation unit designed to keep the shelters inmates alive while it filters out radioactive particles and nerve gases such as VX and sarin.
But today, it is the potential for a manmade tragedy , not a natural calamity, that has convinced the retired teacher that he was right to part with almost 8m yen to construct the tiny shelter.
Nine cities have conducted evacuation drills since North Korean missiles property in the sea inside Japans exclusive economic zone in March, with around a dozen more expected to follow soon.
A 30 -second government warning, aired on primetime TV, prays people to seek shelter in sturdy concrete buildings or flee underground in the event of an attack. Those stranded in their homes should conceal behind sturdy objects, lie face down on the storey and far removed from windows.